1. 阿撒瀉勒 (Azazel)

林勝倫

「阿撒瀉勒」只出現在三處經文

為那兩隻羊拈鬮,一鬮歸與耶和華,一鬮歸與阿撒瀉勒。(利16:8)
但那拈鬮歸與阿撒瀉勒的羊要活著安置在耶和華面前,用以贖罪,打發人送到曠野去,歸與阿撒瀉勒。(利16:10)
那放羊歸與阿撒瀉勒的人要洗衣服,用水洗身,然後進營。(利16:26)

翻譯聖經的「音譯」與「意譯」

由於和合本採「音譯」,所以令讀者十分費解。但下列的英文譯本有採「音譯」(transliteration),也有採「意譯」(translation)的,詳列如下:

(ASV) And Aaron shall cast lots upon the two goats; one lot for Jehovah, and the other lot for Azazel.

(BBE) And Aaron will make selection from the two goats by the decision of the Lord, one goat for the Lord and one for Azazel.

(CEV) where I will show you which goat will be sacrificed to me and which one will be sent into the desert to the demon Azazel.

(GW) Then Aaron must throw lots for the two goats. One lot will be for the LORD and the other for Azazel.

(MSG) and cast lots over the two goats, one lot for GOD and the other lot for Azazel.

(KJV+) And Aaron175 shall cast5414 lots1486 upon5921 the two8147 goats;8163 one259 lot1486 for the LORD,3068 and the other259 lot1486 for the scapegoat.5799

(NIV) He is to cast lots for the two goats-one lot for the LORD and the other for the scapegoat.

(YLT) And Aaron hath given lots over the two goats, one lot for Jehovah, and one lot for a goat of departure;

原文聖經的「字意」與「正意」

再從希伯來原文「字意」來看,「阿撒瀉勒」(Azazel)(H5799)是由兩個字組合而成的,即H5795和H235。前者「阿撒」(Az)是「母羊」(a she goat),其字根有「強壯」(strong)(H5810)的意思。後者「瀉勒」(azal)是「遷移」(go away)或「消失」(disappear)的意思。所以「阿撒瀉勒」合起來的「字意」就是「一隻遷移的母羊」(a scapegoat)。

H5799 עזאזל ‛ăzâ’zêl From H5795 and H235; goat of departure; the scapegoat:

H5795  עז ‛êz From H5810; a she goat (as strong)

H5810 עזז ‛âzaz A primitive root; to be stout , strengthen (self), be strong.

H235 אזל ‘âzal A primitive root; to go away, hence to disappear

又因「瀉勒」(H235)的字根與「神」(H433)相似,所以有人把「阿撒瀉勒」與「耶和華」相提並論,說那兩隻「代罪羔羊」,一隻歸於「耶和華」神,另一隻歸於「…..」神。

H433  אלהּ  ‘ĕlôahh a deity or the deity: – God, god.

保羅提醒提摩太,說:「你當竭力在神面前得蒙喜悅,作無愧的工人,按著正意分解真理的道。」(提後2:15)這「正意」就是指全本聖經的「總原則」。神在經上的啟示是「漸進式」的,後來的經文說:「東離西有多遠,他叫我們的過犯離我們也有多遠!」(詩103:12)又說:「必再憐憫我們,將我們的罪孽踏在腳下,又將我們的一切罪投於深海。」(彌7:19)「我要赦免他們的罪孽,不再記念他們的罪惡。這是耶和華說的。」(耶31:34)

所以從後來的經文啟示得知:「阿撒瀉勒」的「正意」就是「徹底遷移」,表明神藉著每年一次的贖罪日所獻的那兩隻「代罪羔羊」,一隻直接宰殺用在贖罪祭上,因為「罪的工價乃是死。」(羅6:23a)另一隻間接背負以色列人的罪,被「徹底遷移」到無人之地,象徵罪從人間除去,神不再記念人的罪。這兩隻羊都是耶穌的預表:施洗約翰指著耶穌說:「看哪,神的羔羊,除去(或作:背負)世人罪孽的!」(約1:29)使徒保羅說:「惟有神的恩賜,在我們的主基督耶穌裡,乃是永生。」(羅6:23b)希伯來書的作者說:「凡祭司天天站著事奉神,屢次獻上一樣的祭物,這祭物永不能除罪。但基督獻了一次永遠的贖罪祭,就在神的右邊坐下了。從此,等候他仇敵成了他的腳凳。因為他一次獻祭,便叫那得以成聖的人永遠完全。」(來10:11-14)

聖經字典的「解說」與「參考」

依據 Nelson’s Illustrated Bible Dictionary 的解說:
SCAPEGOAT-a live goat over whose head Aaron confessed all the sins of the children of Israel. The goat was then sent into the wilderness on the Day of Atonement, symbolically taking away their sins. The derivation of the term scapegoat is not completely clear. Scholars suggest it communicates such ideas as “passing away in his strength,” ”strength of God,” ”loneliness,” or “desert.” But the most probable meaning is the idea of “far removed” or “going far away.”….The goat symbolized the removal of the sins of the people into an uninhabited land. The process represented the transfer of guilt from the people of Israel, the complete removal of guilt form their midst.

2 則回應給 1. 阿撒瀉勒 (Azazel)

  1. Tiho Dan 說:

    被大乘神教翻成**阿修羅***

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